Thursday, October 31, 2019
Discounted and non-discounted cash flow techniques - Essay Example This report aims at appraising four different projects on the basis of both discounted and non-discounted cash flow techniques. After the relevant computations, one project will be advised to be acceptedThis report also highlights the projects appraisal techniques in detail such that every technique will be discussed and its strengths and weaknesses will be elaborated. One by one every project will be considered for appraisal and its relevant computations will be provided in the appendix. The decision as to which project is to be accepted lies basically on two broader grounds namely as financial and non-financial. Here the financial grounds are discussed such that financial grounds itself can be bifurcated on two basis which are discounted cash flow techniques and non-discounted cash flow techniques. The discounted cash flow techniques have both the absolute and relative techniques. The most popular absolute technique is Net Present Value (NPV) technique which has also been used in t his current analysis. The relative discounted cash flow techniques may have various forms in which the famous ones are Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Profitability Index (PI). On the other hand, the non-discounted cash flow techniques consist of Payback Period, Urgency and Accounting Rate of Return (ARR). Discounted Cash Flow Techniques In this particular analysis, NPV, IRR and PI are used as discounted cash flow techniques to appraise the project whereas only Payback is used as non-discounted cash flow technique as other techniques cannot be used because the non-availability of the relevant data. The following discussion contains detailed explanation of discounted cash flow techniques. Net Present Value Net Present Value technique is the most famous project appraisal technique such that it explains the benefits of the project in an absolute financial sense. This technique provides an absolute figure as how much the project would earn given in its project life. This technique wor ks on the basis of discounting such that cash out flows and flows are discounted through an appropriate discount rate which is generally the weighted average cost of capital. In the way, the present value of all cash outflows and inflows are computed and then all the present values are summed up to obtain the Net Present Value of the project. Strengths The strength of this technique is that it provides an absolute amount which reflects the overall benefits that the project can provide now. This technique is also quite simple to calculate and quite easy to understand. Weaknesses The weaknesses include that the NPV of a particular project can exactly be equal to another project but both the projects may have significant differences in the magnitude of the cash flows. Another weakness of the technique is that it is based on the future expectations such that cash flows are projected with judgment. In case if the economic and financial situation changes, then the actual results may vary significantly from the estimates NPV. Comprehensive financial knowledge is also required to compute the NPV especially in those projects where tax implications have the key impact upon the generation of cash flows. Internal Rate of Return This discounted cash flow technique is also quite popular among the financial analyst such that it works on the basis of NPV. Internal Rate of Return is that rate at which the Net Present Value of a project becomes zero. This means that if the IRR is used as a discount rate instead of WACC which can produce a nil NPV. Hence if IRR exceeds than WACC, then the project can produce positive NPV. However, if IRR remains lower than WACC then NPV would also remain in a negative zone. Strengths The biggest strength of IRR is that it is a relative measure and a comparable one. It is also easier to understand the logic that works behind it. The interpretation of IRR is quite easy and this technique is also quite consistent with the objective of maximizing th e wealth of shareholders. Weaknesses There are many drawbacks of this
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Integrated Approaches to Working With Children and Young People - Essay Example Moreover, these programmes are formulated with the intention of improving the quality of life of every children as well as young people. The Children Act 2004 provides legal support to all these programmes that are broadly initiated. Furthermore, this Act offers significant duties as well as determines the responsibilities for providing better services to children  (Crown, 2012). Every Child Matters Ã¢â¬ËEvery Child MattersÃ¢â¬â¢ is fundamentally considered to be the national framework for the programmes which are initiated in order to comply with the requirements of the youths and the children. This framework is initiated with the motive of increasing opportunities as well as decreasing risks that experience by the children or the young people. Moreover, the services which are to be rendered by the professional of these programmes are required to identify the risks that are associated with children as well as young people. The risks which are identified are required to be sor ted out in an efficient manner. The integrated working services can be rendered effectively with the assistance of local leaders and collaboration with local communities. Moreover, this framework determines the actions that are required to be undertaken by the local authorities and the support that is to be provided to the local authorities for carrying out these activities effectively (North Yorkshire County Council, 2013). The valuable outcomes of the Ã¢â¬ËEvery Child MattersÃ¢â¬â¢ that are mostly desired by the young people and the children have been portrayed hereunder. Being Healthy The children as well as the young people must possess better mental as well as physical health. Moreover, the young... This paper approves that integrated working is a process of involving every individuals as well as professionals who are included in welfare activities for the youths and the children. The children as well as the youths are required to be provided with better assistance as well as additional support in order to improve their life and growth. Risks as well as problems pertaining among children as well as young people are required to be identified at an early stage. Moreover, on identification of risks, measures must be undertaken to eliminate all these risks to children in an efficient manner. This report makes a conclusion that the government of the UK has initiated a programme named Ã¢â¬ËEvery Child MattersÃ¢â¬â¢ with the objective of providing additional requirement to children as well as young people in an effective manner. There are certain crucial outcomes that are mostly desired by children for better health as well as growth. Moreover, there are professionals as well as individuals who are entitled with the responsibility of meeting the needs as well as requirements of children as well as young people. Moreover, the government has also initiated that there should be lead practitioners who will be responsible for providing all the requisite packages of service effectively. In accordance with the scenario, Jordan is provided with SEN as well as SENCO decided that she will be offered with educational plan in order to provide enhanced educational facilities. These educational facilities will be provided to Jordan free of cost. All these will facilitate Jordan and h er family with better healthcare services.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
The Automated Teller Machines Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) have gained prominence as a delivery channel for banking transactions in India. Banks have been deploying ATMs to increase their reach. As at the end of December 2007 as per the RBI circular, the number of ATMs deployed in India was 32,342. More people are now moving towards using the automated teller machines (ATM) for their banking needs. According to a survey by Banknet India, 95% people now prefer this modern channel to traditional mode of banking. Almost 60% people use an ATM at least once a week. Increased ATM usage is also helped by the fact that customers have now the flexibility of using ATMs of other banks, as most of the banks are part of major interbank networks like National Financial Switch (NFS), Mitr, BANCS, Cashtree and Cashnet. The interbank networks have brought together ATMs of several banks so that consumers would gain access to any of the participating banks ATMs. Banks find it cheaper to pay membership fees to these networks as against setting up additional units in expensive-to-deploy areas. ATMs are now seen to be more than mere cash dispensing machines. Customers use ATMs to recharge their mobile phone pre-paid connections, pay their utility bills, even mutual fund transactions making them at par with flexibility given in internet banking only more secure. Of the value-added services provided at ATMs, bill-payment is the most used service, followed by prepaid mobile talk-time recharges. However, still about one third of the respondents do not use any value added services at ATMs. The ATM market in India is not yet saturated. Though the concentration of ATMs is greater in metros, the demand is increasing for other cities and even rural areas. ATMs per million people approximately is 33 units is very low. Experts forecast that the growth rate (CAGR) is expected to grow 18 percent up by 2013. Banks going into a self service model can have huge saving potential for banks and may also increase the convenience for the customers. Following is a representative trend taking into account the growth in the number of ATMs in three of the largest Indian banks: ATM Supply Chain Network Activities Following are the major activities carried out as part of the ATM supply chain or in supporting the ATM services of a bank Maintenance Activities Site Telecommunication Link Cash Refilling ATM Monitoring Handling Customer Complaints Reconciliation of Cash And Interbank Transactions Following is a sample ATM Supply chain network: Bank Head Office ATM Vendors Outsourced Agent Bank Branch 1 Bank Branch 2 ATM As can be seen from the network above, the major participants in the ATM supply chain network are: ATM Vendors If the bank ATM and the related IT infrastructure is outsourced then; the ATM infrastructure is operated and maintained by the ATM vendors for a fees. It provides the advantages of cost efficiency and scalability for the banks Outsourced Delivery agents They are the ones who supply cash to the ATMs. They either have a Vault Cash account where the vendors themselves maintain some cash balance or they have an Overdraft Account with the Bank itself, which gets debited after each withdrawal and credited after the deposit at the ATM. Bank Branches These are the Bank branches in-charge of the various ATMs in a particular area Bank Head Office This is the main office branch of a bank in a particular city or district ATM supply chain IT infrastructure ATM Infrastructure Information flow Delivery Channel Coordinator Switch Network Outsourced Delivery Agents Card Issuers Server ATM Information flow for cash withdrawal and for Credit Cards Information flow for cash replenishment MIS Info ATM It interfaces with the switch network to exchange cash withdrawal, cash replenishment and credit card information Outsourced Delivery Agents They receive information from the delivery channel coordinators to replenish the ATM cash Delivery channel coordinator They receive cash replenishment and MIS information from the switching network. There is always more than one ATM under each Delivery channel coordinator to take advantage of the economies of scale. Also, the channel ordination can be either manually managed or automated. Switch Network The switch server authenticates the user, as well as exchanges cash replenishment related information with the individual ATMs Card Issuers Server The banks host server interacts with the switch network to obtain card withdrawal and credit card information while at the same authenticating the credit card transaction from the Card Issuers Server Delivery Channels Delivery channels are medium for information transmission or cash transmission in a banking context. They are also known as touch-points, which deliver service to the end-user in his convenience. The primary medium of touch-point was the brick-mortal form of banking. However as time passed, and information technology proliferated banks were able to extend the touch-points to various other forms such as: Automated Teller Machines (ATM) Point of Sale (POS) Mobile Banking Internet Banking The delivery channel innovation was started by private banks foreign banks after the 1991 reforms when many banks were allowed to carry out operations in India. Advantages of Delivery Channels Deliver channels provide the following benefits to users Easy access 247 availability Security, Reduced transaction costs Options of access per convenience Acceptance Implementation Old generation banks with little or marginal systems have acceptance issues with the disruptive technologies of internet. The acceptance issue also comes with many of the old generation customers who believe in losing the personal touch of banking. Implementation issues center around the following: Centralization of Data Multiple technologies for different systems Security issues (Customer end/Banking end) Multiple interface for different channels Synchronization of information across channels Currency Distribution Banks need to maintain a certain level of cash in order to service its daily withdrawals. There is an entire supply-chain in place which helps in ensuring the same. Below is a diagram of how money travels from the press to the various banks ATM Presses/Mints Public Press-linked offices Currency Chest offices (Banks) An overview of the supply-chain of Banks The presses and mints where notes and coins are printed are under the RBI. The money from the mints and presses is moved daily to the 19 press-linked offices. These are sent to the nearby zonal currency-chest banks, essentially Banks which store current called as Chest offices. There are in all 4279 chests and 4040 coin depots. Functions of the Chest office Fulfills the requirement of peoples funds Withdrawal and acceptance of unfit notes Payments to Governments Operates with minimum balance at all times Each day the records are maintained for the issue/acceptance of currency. It also has to maintain the asset-liability position in cash management. Currency in Circulation Just as a manufacturing supply chain deals with product varieties also known as SKUs, the currency supply chain also has its SKUs through various denominations. The shift towards higher denominations was observed since the wide-usage of ATMs. Various steps were also taken to phase out Rs .5/- notes and replacing with coins for many such low denominations Source:RBI Docs, Currency Management, Section VIII, Dt. 27/08/2009 Clean-Note Policy To ensure the life of currency notes, RBI issued a directive to all bank offices to cease the stapling of notes and instead band them and the soiled notes be returned to RBI. But devalued stapled notes were still lying with banks. IT systems were used to create a Currency Verification Processing (CVP) system. This categorized notes into Fit, Unfit, Reject and Suspect categories. A Citizens charter was also issued providing guidelines on how to identify soiled notes and steps to be taken to return to RBI. However due to implementation issues kept the proportion of soiled notes in circulation from 15.9 million pieces (2002-03) to 10.9 million (2008-09). Logistics Distribution Challenges Each bank generally arranges for personal logistics service with police protection. Security vans are used for short-distances and train for longer distances. The extent and size of the country poses a significant problem in meeting need for currency at various pockets in India. Following are some of the issues faced in distribution Security availability of railway wagons Political boundaries that inefficiently defining jurisdiction of Issue offices which lead to suboptimal logistic services Moving currency across touch-points an exercise that is avoidable is generally carried out Private security is not desirable and police cant be dedicated for this exercise Various existing distribution systems of milk-cooperatives, post-offices, coin-dispenser mechanisms and a directive to issue bulk users with a certain proportion of coins was made. Supply Challenges With 4 printing presses, supply after 1999 was not a problem, but the pace of notes replacement made quality of notes deteriorate. Since the notes that were returned came unsorted there were inefficiencies in understanding the outflow of currency from system. In order to develop capacities to free-up vault space in banks various measures like shredding systems in all offices were setup. Demand-forecasting among banks Banks carry out demand-forecasting using statistical analysis using long-term historical demands to calculate forecasts. These aim to serve the following needs: Incremental needs As and when money is needed by RBI, the presses supply Replacement needs Money is needed to replace specific notes, which are soiled or disfigured Reserve needs Emergency requirements to fulfil reserve requirements by banks Technology in Currency Operations With such a vast network of banks, the Reserve Bank established Integrated Computerized Currency Operations and Management Systems (ICCOMS) which helped in error-free reporting and accounting of chest-level transactions. Security in distribution and ATM Security is increasingly becoming more significant in network environment with the emergence of the internetworking technology. The internetworking technology can act as or provide the communication channels across networks so that machines in different networks can talk to each other. But such kind of technologies like ATM is exposed to all kinds of attacks in such an accessible environment. Most of the network technologies, without integrating with security mechanism originally, are being redesigned to provide some security services. ATMs attempts to be secure by keeping the customers personal identification number (PIN) and other information safe by using encryption software such as Triple DES (Data Encryption Standard) Threats to ATM networks Like other such networks, ATM networks suffer a lot of threats like eavesdropping, spoofing, service denial, VC stealing and traffic analysis etc. And VC stealing and traffic analysis happen only in ATM networks. Eavesdropping Eavesdropping refers to the threat that the attacker connects or taps into the transmission media and gain an unauthorized access to the data. It is one of the most common attacks to the network. Service Denial ATM technology is a connection-oriented technique managed by a set of signals. By sending some anti-signals frequently, the attacker can disturb the communication between user A and user B to a great extent which can disable the Quality of Service(QoS) in ATM. Combining this technique with other tricks like eavesdropping, the attacker can even completely block one user from another. Stealing of VCs If two switches in an ATM network compromise, the attacker can even steal a VC from another user. Some argue that possibility of compromising of the switches is quite low but that is true only if the ATM network is owned by one organization. But this is not the case today since in ATM internetworking, in which case cells travel through different ATM networks, it becomes very easy for two switches to compromise. Traffic Analysis Its a kind of threat in which a hacker can get information by collecting and analyzing the information (not the actual content of communication) like the timing, volume and about the parties communicating through a Virtual Circuit. Encryption effects only the content and not the timing and volume of the communication. So gaining access to even these can reveal a great deal of information to an attacker. Generally this attack doesnt happen but can happen when ATM is used in a highly stringent and securitised environment. Major requirements/functions of an ATM security system User Identity Verification: The system should have the facility to establish and verify the identity of all the users and players in an ATM network. Controlled Access and Authorization: The system should ensure that any player without authority to gain access to some information or resources should not be able to access it. Protection of Confidentiality: Every data that is stored or used in communication should be kept classified. Protection of Data Integrity: Guarantee regarding the integrity of the stored communicated data should be given by the Security system. Strong Accountability: The system should ensure that No entity is able to deny the responsibility of its any of the actions or efforts carried out by her. Activities Logging: The security system should support the capability to retrieve information about security activities in the Network Elements with the possibility of tracing this information to individuals or entities. Alarm reporting: Provision of generation of alarm notifications regarding certain selective events related to security. Audit: Provision of analysing of data logged into the system in case of any security violation so that required measures can be used and checks can be installed. Security Recovery: Provisions of recovery from successful or attempted security violations. Security Management: Proper management of the security services required as a part of above requirements. Suppliers of cash main source: Central bank The most important requirement of an ATM is one major motive behind the technology i.e. making money easily available to the customers. Traditionally there have been a number of suppliers of cash starting from unorganised money lenders in the past to the modern banks today. A bank is a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and gives loans to customers using those deposits. Can be commercial or retail banking or the money can be lend either directly to the customer or also through the use of markets. Banking channels Apart from their branches, bank offers many different channels to access their banking and other services. Among these, few channels help the customers in carrying out transactions without the involvement of real cash. These are E- Mail, Telephone, Call banking, Mobile and Video banking etc. In addition to all these channels, banks provide a source of real cash called ATM through a machine that dispenses cash and sometimes takes deposits without the need for a human representative from bank side. Major source of money: Central Bank A central bank is a banking institution with an exclusive privilege to lend to its government. It behaves both as a normal commercial bank wherein it charges interest on the loans made to borrowers, majorly the government of the country the bank exists for and also as a lender of last resort wherein it lends to the banks when situation is not too good or as a part of the statutory requirements. But Central bank has a monopoly on creating the currency of that nation and it is the kind of bank that can lend money to other banks in times of need. It is the major source of money in a market and acts as the regulator of money supply too. Security in Distribution on and ATM Security is increasingly becoming more significant in network environment with the emergence of the internetworking technology. The internetworking technology can act as or provide the communication channels across networks so that machines in different networks can talk to each other. But such kind of technologies like ATM is exposed to all kinds of attacks in such an accessible environment. Most of the network technologies, without integrating with security mechanism originally, are being redesigned to provide some security services. ATMs attempts to be secure by keeping the customers personal identification number (PIN) and other information safe by using encryption software such as Triple DES (Data Encryption Standard) Major requirements/functions of an ATM security system User Identity Verification: The system should have the facility to establish and verify the identity of all the users and players in an ATM network. Controlled Access and Authorization: The system should ensure that any player without authority to gain access to some information or resources should not be able to access it. Protection of Confidentiality: Every data that is stored or used in communication should be kept classified. Protection of Data Integrity: Guarantee regarding the integrity of the stored communicated data should be given by the Security system. Strong Accountability: The system should ensure that No entity is able to deny the responsibility of its any of the actions or efforts carried out by her. Activities Logging: The security system should support the capability to retrieve information about security activities in the Network Elements with the possibility of tracing this information to individuals or entities. Alarm reporting: Provision of generation of alarm notifications regarding certain selective events related to security. Audit: Provision of analysing of data logged into the system in case of any security violation so that required measures can be used and checks can be installed. Security Recovery: Provisions of recovery from successful or attempted security violations. Security Management: Proper management of the security services required as a part of above requirements. Suppliers of cash main source: Central bank The most important requirement of an ATM is one major motive behind the technology i.e. making money easily available to the customers. Traditionally there have been a number of suppliers of cash starting from unorganised money lenders in the past to the modern banks today. A bank is a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and gives loans to customers using those deposits. Can be commercial or retail banking or the money can be lend either directly to the customer or also through the use of markets. Banking channels Apart from their branches, bank offers many different channels to access their banking and other services. Among these, few channels help the customers in carrying out transactions without the involvement of real cash. These are E- Mail, Telephone, Call banking, Mobile and Video banking etc. In addition to all these channels, banks provide a source of real cash called ATM through a machine that dispenses cash and sometimes takes deposits without the need for a human representative from bank side. Major source of money: Central Bank A central bank is a banking institution with an exclusive privilege to lend to its government. It behaves both as a normal commercial bank wherein it charges interest on the loans made to borrowers, majorly the government of the country the bank exists for and also as a lender of last resort wherein it lends to the banks when situation is not too good or as a part of the statutory requirements. But Central bank has a monopoly on creating the currency of that nation and it is the kind of bank that can lend money to other banks in times of need. It is the major source of money in a market and acts as the regulator of money supply too. nation and it is the kind of bank that can lend money to other banks in times of need. It is the major source of money in a market and acts as the regulator of money supply too. Demand Projections for ATMs Most ATMs are connected to international bank networks, enabling people to withdraw and deposit money from machines not belonging to the bank or country where they have their account. Serving the ATMs network is a costly task: it takes employees time to supervise the network and make decisions about cash management and it involves high operating costs (financial, transport, handling, insurance etc.). As interest rate rises and greater operating efficiencies become paramount. Some banks typically maintain as much as 40% more cash at their ATMs than whats needed, even though many experts consider cash excess of 15% to 20% to be sufficient. Cash related costs represent about 35-60 % of the overall costs of running an ATM. Through currency management optimization, banks can avoid falling into the trap of maintaining too much cash and begin to profit by mobilizing idle cash. Effective currency management and control starts with an automated solution that uses advanced algorithms to accura tely predict currency supply and demand, allowing banks to forecast demand and pro-actively manage currency throughout their network. Transportation and servicing cost increase can be substantial for banks. To achieve the lowest cost of distribution based on accurate supply and demand forecasting and optimization procedures is critical for a bank to lower its operational expenses and improve the return on its cash assets. What is expected of a forecast model of the ATM network is that it simulates historical demand by using data from actual cash-in transactions and cash-out transactions. The historical demand model is overlaid with additional factors, such as paydays, holidays, and seasonal demand in a specific area. Analytical models are aligned with the experience of resources that have intimate knowledge of the banks daily operations and are used to determine the optimum cash amount for each ATM by calculating the transport and money upload costs against interest rates. Cash drawings are subject to trends and generally follow weekly, monthly and annual cycles. An appropriate model for a bank and its branches or ATMs should estimate optimal amount of stocked money plus efficiently manage and control day-to-day cash handling, transportation with reducing of currency transportation and servicing costs. The system should be flexible enough to allow the bank to reforecast future demand, perform WHAT IF analyses, and optimize the network as the cash distribution environment evolves. Cash demand forecast for every ATM is based on linear regression models with seasonality coefficients. The development of such models is relatively complicated and differs for various ATM. Therefore preparation of forecasting models for whole ATM network is difficult task for owners of machines. The parameters of forecasting models are determined in the system implementation stage and are held constant during the operation phase. However, business environment changes continually in real world and, therefore, the model parameters must be also adapted to the changing environment. A recent paper on the optimization techniques proposes the use of artificial neural networks combined with existing what-if analysis tools and simulation modelling procedures. This advanced method will handle the drawbacks of simple regression models but will be more accurate in projecting the demand. Off-late a few advanced software packages developed by traditional financial network giants like Visa are also available that provide powerful cash management facility. Publicly available data regarding these software packages suggest that they also use multi-regression models for prediction purposes. Network optimization models for cash distribution to various ATMs are also important to reduce the costs across the supply chain. In the first instance, it can be very valuable to coordinate cash uploading and service procedures while visiting the ATM network. Coordinated route planning for maintenance of various ATMs could also reduce the ATM networks management costs significantly. Issues in Currency Identification Counterfeit currency notes is one of the biggest problems that are currently plaguing the cash distribution network. A lot of people suffer from this while withdrawing cash from an ATM when they inadvertently receive a fake note in a bundle of proper bills. It is difficult to prove accountability in case of such an incident and fix blame. Of the 48,963 million pieces of currency in circulation in 2009 398,111 pieces were found to be counterfeit. RBI has come with a set of recommendations to be implemented across the distribution network that forms the supply chain of cash distribution to check counterfeit, maintain quality of notes in circulation, strengthening of security systems and procedures and fixing accountability in case of human error. These recommendations are as given below: (A) Measures for facilitating detection of counterfeit notes and maintaining quality of notes in circulation (i) Note Sorting Machines (NSMs) / Desktop Sorters may be installed in all bank branches in a phased manner for early detection of counterfeit notes. (ii) Banks may ensure the quality of the notes fed in ATMs. They may conduct periodic audit of the agents used for outsourcing this activity viz. the CIT companies. Banks may switch over to the cassette swap system for feeding the ATMs. New ATMs installed may be provided with in built note detectors. Over a period existing ATMs may also be required to have in built note detectors. (iii) Performance parameters of NSMs may be standardized by RBI to ensure that all NSMs installed adhere to the laid down standards for detection of counterfeit notes. (iv) RBI may ensure that the plan for withdrawal of notes of old series is implemented strictly as formulated and that the new series of banknotes with more robust security features be introduced as early as possible. RBI may also facilitate R and D efforts for development of new security features. (v) Where any person inadvertently in possession of counterfeit notes upto five (5) pieces tenders the same at a bank counter, the requirement of filing FIR may be done away with. A simple report may be filed with the branch which in turn may include this in the Counterfeit Currency Report (CCR) to FIU-IND / RBI. (vi) RBI may review the system of incentives and disincentives for detection and disclosure of counterfeit notes while assisting the enforcement agencies in dealing appropriately with those involved in making and distribution of counterfeit notes. (B) Measures relating to cash holding and distribution (vii) RBI may stipulate suitable cash holding limits for all currency chests beyond which the cash should necessarily be moved to a chest with larger limits or to RBI. (viii) Each RBI office may undertake a review of the requirement of currency chests in their jurisdiction based on the volume and nature of transactions, accessibility of the chest and other factors including security so as to rationalize the number of chests and upgrade the facilities thereat for better security and efficiency. (ix) To tap advantages arising out of economies of scale, minimize overnight cash risks at bank branches and to benefit from sophisticated logistics techniques banks may be encouraged to establish Currency Processing Centres, which should be permitted to charge other banks for processing services. (x) As NSMs have to be installed at all branches for sorting notes before dispensation, banks will have to make necessary investments. The cost of such investments will need to be recovered from the bulk tenderers of cash. Banks may put in place a transparent policy for such charges of cash handling/processing with the approval of their respective boards as already advised by RBI vide its DBOD directive DIR.BC.86 / 13.10.00 dated September 7, 1999. (xi) RBI may take initiatives in promoting use of cards and electronic means of payment. (C) Measures for strengthening security systems and procedures (xii) RBI may explore enlisting the services of a specialized and dedicated force / other approved agencies to provide security at chests and for movement of treasure. (xiii) RBI may explore upgradation of the security systems in currency chests and RBI vaults incorporating electronic bio-metric access, electronic locking of bins, and surveillance through Closed Circuit Television (CCTVs). Networking of CCTVs at chests within the jurisdiction of a controlling office of the bank may be explored for better surveillance. (xiv) Tamper-proof shrink wrapping of soiled notes with bar coding of details of the branch remitting them may be introduced. (xv) A system of quarterly security audit of currency chest branches by controlling offices may be introduced. Comprehensive guideline / format may be prepared by RBI /IBA. (xvi) A system of risk based inspection of currency chests may be introduced by banks / RBI taking into account various parameters for evaluating the extent of risk. (xvii) Banks may draw up a contingency plan / disaster management plan in consultation with local police. (xviii) RBI may explore the possibility of introducing a defacing system of self inking / marking of banknotes in transit or in chests, which would automatically trigger-in if there is an attack / attempted robbery/ theft etc. (D) HR Measures (xix) Banks may modify their transfer pricing policy or equivalent policy so as to pass on the benefit on account of having a currency chest to the branch where the chest is maintained. (xx) Rotation of staff posted at currency chests may be ensured to prevent vested interest and entrenched non adherence of laid down systems and procedures. (xxi) Where deviations and irregularities are found, controlling offices may take immediate punitive action after fixing accountability. (xxii) Bank may accord recognition to currency handling operations as a sensitive and skilled activity and provide necessary incentives and training. A. Dis
Friday, October 25, 2019
Do Special Education Children Benefit From Inclusion? Many children have had learning disabilities for many years. Each year more and more of these children are being helped. Schools are working to improve their special education programs and to have all kinds of students work together in the same classroom. The practice of inclusion was started because educators felt that special needs students would achieve more in traditional classrooms with non-learning disabled students than they would in special education classes. However, research findings suggest that there really is no difference in academic achievement levels for special needs students when they are placed in regular classrooms. Inclusion can be defined as a term, which expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school classroom he or she would otherwise attend. Inclusion involves bringing the support services to the child as opposed to bringing the student to the services. Inclusion requires only that the special needs or learning-disabled child will benefit from being in the regular classroom. The term Ã¢â¬Å"full inclusionÃ¢â¬ means that all students, regardless of their handicapping condition or the severity of it will attend a regular classroom all the time. All the services, such as instructional aides or assistive technology, will be provided for the child in that classroom setting. The terms inclusion and mainstreaming are often used interchangeably; however, they are different methods for educating learning disabled students. Mainstreaming is the selective placement of special education students in one or more regular education classes (Special Education, 2001). When the decision to place a child in a mains... ...ith special education students. It provides definitions of inclusion and mainstreaming. It also gives information about IDEA and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Wildrot, K, & Claybrook, S. (n/d) Effects of Inclusion on Academic Outcomes. Retrieved April 12,2003 from http://ebsochost.com This article is about a study that compared math and reading achievement between regular and inclusion classrooms. They used the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills to find the results. Zigmond, N & Jenkins, J. (1995) When Students Fail to Achieve Satisfactorily. Phi Delta Kappan, 77, (4) Retrieved April 11,2003 from http://ebsochost.com This article looks at how students fail to achieve satisfactorily because of their learning disabilities. They did some research on students with learning disabilities and came up with a design for inclusive school.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Nike Corporation today is the largest sports apparel and footwear brand in the world. Thousands of people wear Nike gear not only to the playing field but also so social gathering and other casual events. Nike is one of the pioneers to take sportswear from the playing field to public domain. It not only made wearing sports wear popular and turned it into fashion wear but also simultaneously captured the serious performance wear market. The growth of the company over the years has been attributed to its brand building efforts and creative marketing. When it first enter into the industry the market was dominated with German products and others products even those made in America were considered inferior to the products from the European giants like Adidas and Puma. To overcome this they collaborated with Japanese partners who can provide similar quality at cheaper prices. After nearly eight years of selling through importing, Blue Ribbon Sports the company that evolved into Nike was formed. The name Ã¢â¬ËNIKEÃ¢â¬â¢ was taken from Greek goddess of victory and Swoosh was adopted as brand logo. (Nike, 2007) Strengths of Nike Nike Business Model The Nike business model has little changed over the last four decades. The company was founded with the belief that it can provide customers products at competitive prices by getting them manufactured in Japan and selling them over in United States. Over the years the destinations have changed but the philosophy remained intact. As the income level in Japan increased it shifted it manufacturing units in Taiwan and Korea. After the boom in Korean and Taiwanese economy it shifted its base in other emerging economies like Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam and China to leverage the cost of production difference. This has resulted in reducing the costs significantly and the company is enabled to deliver maximum value to its customers. Strong Marketing Abilities All this time Nike managed the product design, marketing, sales and distribution system which made it one of the first company in the world to focus on the core competitive advantage and outsource the rest. Strong Supply Chain Management This strategy not only enabled Nike to focus on its strengths of marketing and designing but also able to leverage the specialization of the vendors supplying the goods. For example Shoes were manufactured cost effectively in Taiwan and Japan while clothing is manufactured in labor inexpensive countries like Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand. Recently with increasing operations and established brand the company has changed focused on streamlining operations, efficient demand forecasting and supply chain management. Celebrity Advertising with Cutting Edge Products On the marketing front the company spend big amount on building the brand since the mid eighties. The success of Nike advertising can be attributed to its repeated success of picking up the next superstar in world or sports like Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods in past or Sharapova and Michelle Wie at present. Efficient Retail Management and Brand Management Starting from the running shoes, today the company has turned into a lifestyle brand. Today it not only sells shoes and sports gear but casual clothing, bags, fashion accessories etc (Holmes, 2004). The number of stock keeping Units (SKU) becomes large if one considers that these accessories and gears are developed according to various sports following like cycling, aquatic, skateboarding, outdoor activities, football, baseball, soccer, golf and tennis. Merchandise Mix To enter into various price points with diluting the brand Nike has bought various brands like Exter, Starter, Team Starter, Asphalt, Cole Haan shoes, Converse, Hurley skateboard gear, Bauer etc. Weakness Issues with Sweatshops This dead fish focus on leveraging low labor cost in South East Asian economies to deliver competitive products has often landed Nike in various sorts of troubles from human right groups and labor unions back home, most blaming the company for exploiting children and workers in inhumane conditions. Numbers of these groups blamed it for bringing in and supporting the sweatshop culture in these economies and the company once famous for innovative designs and creative products soon became poster child of anti-globalization worldwide. Noting this Phil Night in said in annual meeting Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"The Nike product has become synonymous with slave wages, forced overtime, and arbitrary abuseÃ¢â¬ . Since then Nike has taken number of steps to cut this malaise in the system and develop respectable human and working standards for its third party vendors. Fall in the Sports shoes market due to changing trends Over the last few years there is continuous decline in sports shoes sale because of trend of non sports shoes with jeans. This has resulted in increasing discount and low realization. Nike has to sort out this aspect of their business along with the rest of sporting gear. Conclusion Over the years Nike has moved from manufacturing to purely a R&D and marketing company. Today Nike headquarters only looks after the designing, market trends and marketing of the products while outsourcing all others. This may have resulted in cutting the cost but it has also increased the dangers like sweatshops and blemish to the brand equity of the company. Nike (2007) Nike official Website 2007. Retrieved on 20th March from www.nikebiz.com Ã
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
The process of naming compounds allows chemists to communicate formulae in words rather than in chemical symbols. There are, however, a few rules about naming compounds which need to be known in order to write a formula in word form or translate a compound in word form into chemical symbols. Ionic compounds If the compound is ionic, then the name of the cation (usually metal) comes first, followed by the Ã¢â¬Ëcompound' name of the anion.To find the compound name of an anion, replace the end of the element's name with Ã¢â¬Ëide'. name of cation + name of anion, suffix Ã¢â¬Ëide' E. g. NaCl: sodium, the cation, first, followed by chlorine changed with the suffix Ã¢â¬Ëide' = sodium chloride If the anion is polyatomic and contains oxygen, then the suffix is Ã¢â¬Ëate'. name of cation + name of polyatomic oxygen anion, suffix Ã¢â¬Ëate' E. g. Na2CO3: sodium, the cation, first, followed by a polyatomic group containing carbon and oxygen to form carbonate = sodium carbonate Note:E. g. MgO: magnesium, the cation, first, followed by oxygen changed with the suffix Ã¢â¬Ëide' because oxygen is the sole ion and not part of a polyatomic group = magnesium oxide Sometimes if the compound contains hydrogen, the word Ã¢â¬Ëhydrogen' shortens to Ã¢â¬Ëbi' such as with NaHCO3, which is known as sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate. Hydrogen compounds If the compound contains hydrogen and a metal, the metal comes first, followed by the word Ã¢â¬Ëhydride', to denote the hydrogen component. etal + hydride E. g. NaH: sodium, the metal, first, followed by hydrogen changed with the suffix Ã¢â¬Ëide' = sodium hydride If the compound contains hydrogen and a non-metal and does not contain water (H2O), then the hydrogen comes first, followed by the element's name replaced with the Ã¢â¬Ëide' suffix. hydrogen + non-metal, suffix Ã¢â¬Ëide' E. g. HF: hydrogen first, followed by fluorine changed with the suffix Ã¢â¬Ëide' = hydrogen fluoride If the hydrogen non-met al compound dissolves in water, it tarts with the Ã¢â¬Ëhydro' prefix, followed by the element's name replaced with an Ã¢â¬Ëic' suffix, followed by Ã¢â¬Ëacid'. hydro(name of element, suffix Ã¢â¬Ëic') acid E. g. HCl: hydro, then chlorine with an Ã¢â¬Ëic' suffix, then Ã¢â¬Ëacid' = hydrochloric acid Oxygen compounds When naming ionic compounds that contain oxygen the basic rule is similar. If the compound contains hydrogen and an oxygen anion (oxyanion) and does not contain water, then hydrogen comes first, followed by the element name with the suffix Ã¢â¬Ëate'. hydrogen + element, suffix Ã¢â¬Ëate' E. g.HCO3: hydrogen followed by carbon with the suffix Ã¢â¬Ëate' = hydrogen carbonate The Ã¢â¬Ëate' rule is used for the most common or the only compound made with an oxyanion. Some compounds, however, form more than one type of compound with oxygen and the amount of oxygen will affect the prefixes and suffixes used. This occurs for all oxyanions, with or without hydrogen involved. Table 1. 1: Naming more than one type of oxygen compound Oxygen level| Prefix| Element| Suffix| A little oxygen| hypo-| | -ite| Some oxygen| | | -ite| More oxygen| | | -ate| A lot of oxygen| per-| | -ate|E. g. Chlorine forms four different oxyanions named: ClO = hypochlorite ClO2 = chlorite ClO3 = chlorate ClO4 = perchlorate The oxygen level corresponds with the relative amounts in different compounds and not necessarily the specific numbers of oxygen atoms. If an element forms just two types of oxyanion compounds, then the suffixes Ã¢â¬Ëite' and Ã¢â¬Ëate' will suffice. If the hydrogen oxyanion compound is dissolved in water, it forms an acid using similar rules, only the Ã¢â¬Ëite' suffix changes to Ã¢â¬Ëous' and the Ã¢â¬Ëate' suffix changes to Ã¢â¬Ëic', followed by the word Ã¢â¬Ëacid'.Table 1. 2: Naming more than one type of hydrogen oxyanion acid Oxygen level| Prefix| Element| Suffix| Acid| A little oxygen| hypo-| | -ous| | Some oxygen| | | -ous| | More oxy gen| | | -ic| | A lot of oxygen| per-| | -ic| | E. g. The above example with chlorine and oxygen plus hydrogen: HClO = hypochlorous acid HClO2 = chlorous acid HClO3 = chloric acid HClO4 = perchloric acid Covalent compounds If a compound contains two non-metals in a covalent bond, then: * the least electronegative element is named first if the compound contains hydrogen, hydrogen is named first * the number of atoms of each element is indicated by a prefix * if the first element only has one atom the prefix is not used * the name of the element has the suffix Ã¢â¬Ëide' least electronegative + number prefix, most electronegative element, suffix Ã¢â¬Ëide' The prefixes used to number the atoms come from Greek and are as follows: 1 = mono- or mon- 2 = di- 3 = tri- 4 = tetra- 5 = penta- | 6 = hexa- 7 = hepta- 8 = octa- 9 = nona- 10 = deca-| E. g.CO: carbon, the least electronegative atom, first, followed by the prefix Ã¢â¬Ëmon' to indicate one atom of oxygen, the most electronegativ e atom, with the suffix Ã¢â¬Ëide' = carbon monoxide CO2 carbon, the least electronegative atom, first, followed by the prefix Ã¢â¬Ëdi' to indicate two atoms of oxygen, the most electronegative atom, with the suffix Ã¢â¬Ëide' = carbon dioxide H2O the prefix Ã¢â¬Ëdi' to indicate two atoms of hydrogen, which has naming priority, followed by Ã¢â¬Ëmon' to indicate one atom of oxygen = dihydrogen monoxide Common names There are a number of common names that chemists like to use instead of the proper scientific names.Most common names and formulae are well-known. It is recommended that common names and formulae be written down as they are encountered so they can be memorised later. Here are a few examples: Common name | Proper name| Chemical formula| water| dihydrogen monoxide| H2O| baking soda| sodium hydrogen carbonate| NaHCO3| table salt| sodium chloride| NaCl| limestone| calcium carbonate| CaCO3| quartz| silicon dioxide| SiO2| See animation 1. What is an acid? Ancient civilis ations had already identified acid as a sour-tasting substance that corroded metal, but confirmation about the exact nature of acid eluded chemists until the 20th century.Early in the 20th century, a number of chemists developed specific chemical definitions for the term Ã¢â¬Ëacid', although many of these definitions refer to subatomic processes, going into much greater depth than required here. The simplest, most general definition is that an acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and which can release hydrogen cations (H+) during a reaction. The strength of an acid depends on its ability to release hydrogen ions Ã¢â¬â stronger acids release hydrogen ions more readily. Some of the properties of acid are that they: * Dissolve in water to form excess hydrogen ions Are highly reactive and will corrode most metals * Conduct electricity * Have a sour taste (strong acids are dangerous and should not be taste-tested) * Produce a stinging sensation (as above, strong acids should n ot be handled) There are some common edible acids such as citric acid, which is found in fruits like oranges, lemons and limes, acetic acid, found in vinegar, carbonic acid, which is the Ã¢â¬Ëfizz' in soft drinks and dairy products, which contain lactic acid. Examples of other acids include: sulphuric acid, present in batteries; and hydrochloric acid, which breaks down food in your stomach. See image 1.Acids like vinegar are used to preserve food because many organisms cannot live in an acidic environment. Similarly, fermentation of food can also produce an acidic environment for preservation purposes Ã¢â¬â vinegar is an acetic acid formed from grapes, lactic acid comes from fermentation of milk. What is a base? Bases are substances with the opposite properties to acids, that is, a base is a substance that accepts hydrogen ions in a reaction. Strong bases will accept more hydrogen ions than weak ones. Alkalis are soluble bases that contain hydroxide ions (OH-). Some properties of bases include that they: Dissolve in water to absorb excess hydrogen ions * Neutralise the effect of acid * Denature (change the molecular structure) of proteins * Have a bitter taste (strong bases are dangerous and should not be taste-tested) * Feel soapy (as above, strong bases should not be handled) Basic substances in everyday use include sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as sodium bicarbonate, used in baking to help bread rise, sodium carbonate, used to make soap, and magnesium hydroxide, commonly used in indigestion remedies. Because of an ability to denature proteins, basic substances break down grease and make good cleaners.Considering that the human body is made up of proteins, this makes bases more dangerous for humans than acids. Clarification of terms Before proceeding, it is important to clarify some terms used in experiments with acids and bases. Strong substances are either acids that readily lose hydrogen cations or bases that readily gain hydrogen ions; weak substances less readily lose or gain hydrogen ions. For clarity, concentrated acids and bases are either pure or come dissolved in very little water, while dilute substances are dissolved in a lot of water.Therefore, strong and weak refer to the chemical reactivity of an acidic/basic substance while dilute and concentrate refer to the ratio of water into which the substance dissolves. Indicators It is also important to learn about some of the ways in which to test the strength of acidic and basic substances, since it is not permitted to taste or touch chemicals in a laboratory environment. Chemical substances are classified as acidic (containing acid), basic (containing base) or neutral (containing neither acid nor base). Chemists have developed a number of methods to test the acidity or alkalinity of a substance using chemical indicators.These indicators use the pH scale, with measurements from one to 14 based on the activity of hydrogen ions in the solution. Substances with a low pH are acidic. Substances with a reading of seven are neutral while basic solutions will elicit a higher reading. Developed by Danish scientist Soren Sorensen, the pH scale may have come from the German word Ã¢â¬Ëpotenz' (meaning power or potency) and Ã¢â¬ËH', the chemical symbol for hydrogen. It is also possible the term is derived from the Latin Ã¢â¬Ëpondus hydrogenii', which translates to Ã¢â¬Ëweight of hydrogen'. See animation 1.Many plants are excellent indicators of pH as they need optimum acidity/alkalinity in the soil to grow. Hydrangeas produce white or blue flowers in acidic soil or pink flowers in basic soil. Blue or red litmus paper, made from a fungal/bacterial growth called lichen, turns red in acid or blue in a base but will not change colour in a neutral solution. A synthetic indicator, bromothymol blue, starts blue and then changes yellow in acid. If placed in a basic or neutral substance it will remain blue. Another indicator would be needed to find out if the substance were neutral or basic.This demonstrates that when using an indicator it is necessary to observe a change in colour to define whether a substance is acidic, basic or neutral. Most indicators have only two colours. The universal indicator is an instrument that mixes several types of indicators and colours in order to show whether a substance is acidic, basic or neutral. Universal indicators have a colour scale that corresponds to the numbered pH scale. After testing, the colour of the paper is matched to a number on the scale for a more exact reading of acidity or alkalinity. See image 2. ReactionsSince acids and bases are more or less opposite substances, they tend to cancel each other out in a process called neutralisation. This reaction produces a salt and water. acid + base salt + water Neutralisation is commonly used in a number of remedies, such as the treatment of bites and stings. Bluebottles inject a basic substance when they sting, so a weak acid like vinegar ( acetic acid) will neutralise a bluebottle sting. Conversely, bee stings are slightly acidic, so a bee sting would be neutralised with a weak base, such as sodium bicarbonate. Seafood gives off an odour due to the basic amines it contains.An acidic acid substance such as lemon juice is squeezed over it to neutralise the smell. Excess acid in the stomach causes indigestion, so it can be neutralised with a weak base called an antacid. An example of an equation using this format is when hydrochloric acid meets sodium hydroxide to form sodium chloride and water: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O Adding an acid to a base does not necessarily mean that the product is automatically neutralised. The strength of each of the reactants must be matched so that all the ions released by the acid find a place with the base.A strong acid with a weak base will result in an acidic salt, a weak acid with a strong base will result in a basic salt, while acids and bases of the same strength will neutralise completel y. Both acidic and metallic substances are highly reactive, which is why acid reacts aggressively in the presence of metal, corroding the metal much faster than moisture and air. The combination of an acid and a metal produces a metallic salt and hydrogen gas in an equation represented like this: acid + metal metallic salt + hydrogen The hydrogen ions are easily lost and replaced by the metallic ions, forming a metallic salt.The hydrogen then forms molecules with itself, resulting in hydrogen gas. An example of this is sulphuric acid and magnesium producing magnesium sulphate salt and hydrogen gas: H2SO4 + Mg MgSO4 + H2 No Flash, No Problem Highlight to reveal names Formula| Names| N2F6| Dinitrogen Hexafluoride| CO2| Carbon Dioxide| SiF4| Silicon Tetrafluoride| CBr4| Carbon Tetrabromide| NCl3| Nitrogen Trichloride| P2S3| Diphosphorous Trisulfide| CO| Carbon Monoxide| NO2| Nitrogen Dioxide| SF2| Sulfur Difluoride| PF5| Phosphorous Pentafluoride| SO2| Sulfur Dioxide| NO| Nitrogen Mono xide| CCl4| carbon tetrachloride|P2O5| diphosphorus pentoxide| | | Rules 1. The first element is named first, using the elements name. 2. Second element is named as an Anion (suffix Ã¢â¬Å"-ideÃ¢â¬ ) 3. Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms 4. Ã¢â¬Å"MonoÃ¢â¬ is not used to name the first element Note: when the addition of the Greek prefix places two vowels adjacent to one another, the Ã¢â¬Å"aÃ¢â¬ (or the Ã¢â¬Å"oÃ¢â¬ ) at the end of the Greek prefix is usually dropped; e. g. , Ã¢â¬Å"nonaoxideÃ¢â¬ would be written as Ã¢â¬Å"nonoxideÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"monooxideÃ¢â¬ would be written as Ã¢â¬Å"monoxideÃ¢â¬ . The Ã¢â¬Å"iÃ¢â¬ at the end of the prefixes Ã¢â¬Å"di-Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"tri-Ã¢â¬ are never dropped. Prefix| number indicated| | mono-| 1| | di-| 2| | tri-| 3| | tetra-| 4| | penta-| 5| | hexa-| 6| | hepta-| 7| | octa-| 8| | nona-| 9| | deca-| 10| Carbon Allotropes by sieboÃ¢â¬â last modified April 20, 2007 Ã¢â¬â 11:54 The allotropes of ca rbon are the different molecular configurations (allotropes) that pure carbon can take. Following is a list of the allotropes of carbon, ordered by notability, and extent of industrial use. Diamond Main article: Diamond Diamond is one of the best known allotropes of carbon, whose hardness and high dispersion of light make it useful for industrial applications and jewelry.Diamond is the hardest known natural mineral, making it an excellent abrasive and also means a diamond holds its polish extremely well and retains luster. The market for industrial-grade diamonds operates much differently from its gem-grade counterpart. Industrial diamonds are valued mostly for their hardness and heat conductivity, making many of the gemological characteristics of diamond, including clarity and color, mostly irrelevant. This helps explain why 80% of mined diamonds (equal to about 100 million carats or 20,000 kg annually), unsuitable for use as gemstones and known as bort, are destined for industrial use.In addition to mined diamonds, synthetic diamonds found industrial applications almost immediately after their invention in the 1950s; another 400 million carats (80,000 kg) of synthetic diamonds are produced annually for industrial useÃ¢â¬ânearly four times the mass of natural diamonds mined over the same period. The dominant industrial use of diamond is in cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing. Most uses of diamonds in these technologies do not require large diamonds; in fact, most diamonds that are gem-quality except for their small size, can find an industrial use.Diamonds are embedded in drill tips or saw blades, or ground into a powder for use in grinding and polishing applications. Specialized applications include use in laboratories as containment for high pressure experiments (see diamond anvil), high-performance bearings, and limited use in specialized windows. With the continuing advances being made in the production ofsynthetic diamond, future applications a re beginning to become feasible. Garnering much excitement is the possible use of diamond as asemiconductor suitable to build microchips from, or the use of diamond as a heat sink in electronics.Significant research efforts in Japan, Europe, and the United Statesare under way to capitalize on the potential offered by diamond's unique material properties, combined with increased quality and quantity of supply starting to become available from synthetic diamond manufacturers. Each carbon atom in diamond is covalently bonded to four othercarbons in a tetrahedron. These tetrahedrons together form a 3-dimensional network of puckered six-membered rings of atoms. This stable network of covalent bonds and the three dimensional arrangement of bonds that diamond is so strong. GraphiteMain article: Graphite Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789, from the Greek : Ã¢â¬Å"to draw/writeÃ¢â¬ , for its use in pencils) is oneof the most common allotropes of carbon. Unlike diamond, grap hite is a conductor, and can be used, for instance, as the material in the electrodes of an electrical arc lamp. Graphite holds the distinction ofbeing the most stable form of solid carbon ever discovered. Graphite is able to conduct electricity due to the unpaired fourth electron in each carbon atom. This unpaired 4th electron forms delocalisedplanes above and below the planes of the carbon atoms.These electrons are free to move, so are able to conduct electricity. However, the electricity is only conducted within the plane of the layers. Graphite powder is used as a dry lubricant. Although it might be thought that this industrially important property is due entirely to the loose interlamellar coupling between sheets in the structure, in fact in a vacuum environment (such as in technologies for use in space), graphite was found to be a very poor lubricant. This fact lead to the discovery that graphite's lubricity is due to adsorbed air and water between the layers, unlike other lay ered dry lubricants such as molybdenum disulfide.Recent studies suggest that an effect called superlubricity can also account for this effect. When a large number of crystallographic defects bind these planes together, graphite loses its lubrication properties and becomes what is known as pyrolytic carbon, a useful material in blood-contacting implants such as prosthetic heart valves. Natural and crystalline graphites are not often used in pure form as structural materials due to their shear-planes, brittleness and inconsistent mechanical properties.In its pure glassy (isotropic) synthetic forms, pyrolytic graphite and carbon fiber graphite is an extremely strong, heat-resistant (to 3000 Ã °C) material, used in reentry shields for missile nosecones, solid rocket engines, high temperature reactors, brake shoes and electric motor brushes. Intumescent or expandable graphites are used in fire seals, fitted around the perimeter of a fire door. During a fire the graphite intumesces (expa nds and chars) to resist fire penetration and prevent the spread of fumes. A typical start expansion temperature (SET) is between 150 and 300 degrees Celsius.Amorphous carbon Main article: Amorphous carbon Amorphous carbon is the name used for carbon that does not have any crystalline structure. As with all glassy materials, some short-range order can be observed, but there is no long-range pattern of atomic positions. While entirely amorphous carbon can be made, most of the material described as Ã¢â¬Å"amorphousÃ¢â¬ actually contains crystallites of graphite  or diamond with varying amounts of amorphous carbon holding them together, making them technically polycrystalline or nanocrystalline materials.Commercial carbon also usually contains significant quantities of other elements, which may form crystalline impurities. Coal and soot are both informally called amorphous carbon. However, both are products of pyrolysis, which does not produce true amorphous carbon under norma l conditions. The coal industry divides coal up into various grades depending on the amount of carbon present in the sample compared to the amount ofimpurities. The highest grade, anthracite, is about 90 percent carbon and 10% other elements. Bituminous coal is about 75-90 percent carbon, and lignite is the name for coal that is around 55 percent carbon.Fullerenes Main article: Fullerene The fullerenes are recently-discovered allotropes of carbon named after the scientist and architect Richard Buckminster Fuller, but were discovered in 1985 by a team of scientists from Rice University and the University of Sussex, three of whom were awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. They are molecules composed entirely of carbon, which take the form ofa hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Spherical fullerenes are sometimes called buckyballs, while cylindrical fullerenes are called buckytubes or nanotubes.As of the early twenty-first century, the chemical and physical properties of fullerenes are still under heavy study, in both pure and applied research labs. In April 2003, fullerenes were under study for potential medicinal use Ã¢â¬â binding specific antibiotics to the structure to target resistant bacteria and even target certain cancer cells such as melanoma. Fullerenes are similar in structure to graphite, which is composedof a sheet of linked hexagonal rings, but they contain pentagonal (or sometimes heptagonal) rings that prevent the sheet from being planar. Carbon nanotubes Main article: Carbon nanotubeCarbon nanotubes are cylindrical carbon molecules with novel properties that make them potentially useful in a wide variety of applications (e. g. , nano-electronics, optics, materials applications, etc. ). They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient conductors of heat. Inorganic nanotubes have also been synthesized. A nanotube (also known as a buckytube) is a member of the fullerene structural family, which also incl udes buckyballs. Whereas buckyballs are spherical in shape, a nanotube is cylindrical, with at least one end typically capped with a hemisphere of the buckyball structure.Their name is derived from their size, since the diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers(approximately 50,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair), while they can be up to several centimeters in length. There are two main types of nanotubes: single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs). Aggregated diamond nanorods Main article: Aggregated diamond nanorods Aggregated diamond nanorods, or ADNRs, are an allotrope of carbon believed to be the least compressible material known to humankind, as measured by its sothermal bulk modulus; aggregated diamond nanorods have a modulus of 491 gigapascals (GPa), while a conventional diamondhas a modulus of 442 GPa. ADNRs are also 0. 3% denser than regular diamond. The ADNR material is also harder than type IIa diamond and ultrahard fullerite. Glassy carbon Main article: Glassy carbon Glassy carbon is a class of non-graphitizing carbon which is widely used as an electrode material in electrochemistry, as well as for high temperature crucibles and as a component of some prosthetic devices.It was first produced by workers at the laboratories of The General Electric Company, UK, in the early 1960s, using cellulose as the starting material. A short time later, Japanese workers produced a similar material from phenolic resin. The preparation of glassy carbon involves subjecting the organic precursors to a series of heat treatments at temperatures up to 3000oC. Unlike many non-graphitizing carbons, they are impermeable to gases and are chemically extremely inert, especially those which have been prepared at very high temperatures.It has been demonstrated that the rates of oxidation of certain glassy carbons in oxygen, carbon dioxide or water vapour are lower than those of any other carbon. They are also highly resist ant to attack by acids. Thus, while normal graphiteis reduced to a powder by a mixture of concentrated sulphuric and nitric acids at room temperature, glassy carbon is unaffected by such treatment, even after several months. Carbon nanofoam Main article: Carbon nanofoam Carbon nanofoam is the fifth known allotrope of carbon discovered in 1997 by Andrei V.Rode and co-workers at the Australian National University in Canberra. It consists of a low-density cluster-assembly of carbon atoms strung together in a loose three-dimensional web. Each cluster is about 6 nanometers wide and consists of about 4000 carbon atoms linked in graphite-like sheets that are given negative curvature by the inclusion of heptagons among the regular hexagonal pattern. This is the opposite of what happens in the case of buckminsterfullerenes, in which carbon sheets are given positive curvature by the inclusion of pentagons.The large-scale structure of carbon nanofoam is similar to that of an aerogel, but with 1% of the density of previously produced carbon aerogels Ã¢â¬â only a few times the density of air at sea level. Unlike carbon aerogels, carbon nanofoam is a poor electrical conductor. Lonsdaleite Main article: Lonsdaleite Lonsdaleite is a hexagonal allotrope of the carbon allotrope diamond, believed to form when meteoric graphite falls to Earth. The great heat and stress of the impact transforms the graphite into diamond, but retains graphite's hexagonal crystal lattice.Lonsdaleite was first identified from the Canyon Diablo meteorite at Barringer Crater (also known as Meteor Crater) in Arizona. It was first discovered in 1967. Lonsdaleite occurs as microscopic crystals associated with diamond in the Canyon Diablo meteorite; Kenna meteorite, New Mexico; and Allan Hills (ALH) 77283, Victoria Land, Antarctica meteorite. It has also been reported from the Tunguska impact site, Russia. Chaoite Main article: Chaoite Chaoite is a mineral believed to have been formed in meteorite impac ts.It has been described as slightly harder than graphite with a reflection colour of grey to white. However, the existence of carbyne phases is disputed Ã¢â¬â see the entry on chaoite for details. Variability of carbon The system of carbon allotropes spans an astounding range ofextremes, considering that they are all merely structural formations ofthe same element. Between diamond and graphite * Diamond is hardest mineral known to man (10 on Mohs scale), but graphite is one of the softest (1 Ã¢â¬â 2 on Mohs scale). * Diamond is the ultimate abrasive, but graphite is a very good lubricant. Diamond is an excellent electrical insulator, but graphite is a conductor of electricity. * Diamond is usually transparent, but graphite is opaque. * Diamond crystallizes in the isometric system but graphite crystallizes in the hexagonal system. Between amorphous carbon and nanotubes * Amorphous carbon is among the easiest materials to synthesize, but carbon nanotubes are extremely expensive to make. * Amorphous carbon is completely isotropic, but carbon nanotubes are among the most anisotropic materials ever produced. ALKENE NAMES Root names give the number of carbons in the longest continuous chain.Alkene names are formed by dropping the Ã¢â¬Å"aneÃ¢â¬ and replacing it with Ã¢â¬Å"eneÃ¢â¬ The following list gives samples:Example: root = propane Ã¢â¬â drop Ã¢â¬Å"aneÃ¢â¬ = Ã¢â¬Å"propÃ¢â¬ alkene = Ã¢â¬Å"propÃ¢â¬ + alkene ending = Ã¢â¬Å"eneÃ¢â¬ = propene | No. of Carbons| Root Name| Formula CnH2n| Structure| 2| ethene| C2H4| CH2=CH2| 3| propene| C3H6| CH2=CHCH3| 4| 1-butene| C4H8| CH2=CHCH2CH3| 5| 1-pentene| C5H10| CH2=CHCH2CH2CH3| Following is a list of alkanes showing their chemical formulas, their names, the number of isomers, and the melting and the boiling point. Please note that, except for the first four alkanes (n=1.. ), their chemical names can be derived from the number of C atoms by using Greek numerical prefixes denoting the number of carbons and the suffix Ã¢â¬Å"-aneÃ¢â¬ . Formula| Name(s)| No. of Isomers| m. p. [Ã °C]| b. p. [Ã °C]| CH4| methane (natural gas)| 1| -183| -162| C2H6| ethane| 1| -172| -89| C3H8| propane; dimethyl methane| 1| -188| -42| C4H10| n-butane; methylethyl methane| 2| -138| 0| C5H12| n-pentane| 3| -130| 36| C6H14| n-hexane| 5| -95| 69| C7H16| n-heptane| 9| -91| 98| C8H18| n-octane| 18| -57| 126| C9H20| n-nonane| 35| -54| 151| C10H22| n-decane| 75| -30| 174|The simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons contain only two elements, hydrogen and carbon. A saturated hydrocarbon or alkane is a hydrocarbon in which all of the carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds. Each carbon atom forms four bonds and each hydrogen forms a single bond to a carbon. The bonding around each carbon atom is tetrahedral, so all bond angles are 109. 5Ã °. As a result, the carbon atoms in higher alkanes are arranged in zig-zag rather than linear patterns. Straight Chain Alkanes The general formula for an alkane is CnH2n+2 where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.There are two ways of writing a condensed structural formula. For example, butane may be written as CH3CH2CH2CH3 or CH3(CH2)2CH3. Rules for Naming Alkanes * The parent name of the molecule is determined by the number of carbons in the longest chain. * In the case where two chains have the same number of carbons, the parent is the chain with the most substituents. * The carbons in the chain are numbered starting from the end nearest the first substituent. * In the case where there are substituents having the same number of carbons from both ends, numbering starts from the end nearest the next substituent. When more than one of a given substituent is present, a prefix is applied to indicate the number of substituents. Use di- for two, tri- for three, tetra- for four, etc. and use the number assigned to the carbon to indicate the position of each substituent. Branched Alkanes * Branched substituents are numbered starting from the carbon of the substituent attached to the parent chain. From this carbon, count the number of carbons in the longest chain of the substituent. The substituent is named as an alkyl group based on the number of carbons in this chain. Numbering of the substituent chain starts from the carbon attached to the parent chain. * The entire name of the branched substituent is placed in parentheses, preceded by a number indicating which parent-chain carbon it joins. * Substituents are listed in alphabetical order. To alphabetize, ignore numerical (di-, tri-, tetra-) prefixes (e. g. , ethyl would come before dimethyl), but don't ignore don't ignore positional prefixes such as iso and tert (e. g. , triethyl comes before tertbutyl). Cyclic Alkanes * The parent name is determined by the number of carbons in the largest ring (e. g. , cycloalkane such as cyclohexane). In the case where the ring is attached to a chain containing additional carbons, the ring is considered to be a su bstituent on the chain. A substituted ring that is a substituent on something else is named using the rules for branched alkanes. * When two rings are attached to each other, the larger ring is the parent and the smaller is a cycloalkyl substituent. * The carbons of the ring are numbered such that the substituents are given the lowest possible numbers. Straight Chain Alkanes # Carbon| Name| Molecular Formula| Structural Formula| 1 | Methane | CH4 | CH4 | 2 | Ethane | C2H6 | CH3CH3 | | Propane | C3H8 | CH3CH2CH3 | 4 | Butane | C4H10 | CH3CH2CH2CH3 | 5 | Pentane | C5H12 | CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 | 6 | Hexane | C6H14 | CH3(CH2)4CH3 | 7 | Heptane | C7H16 | CH3(CH2)5CH3 | 8 | Octane | C8H18 | CH3(CH2)6CH3 | 9 | Nonane | C9H20 | CH3(CH2)7CH3 | 10 | Decane | C10H22 | CH3(CH2)8CH3 | Alkenes contain carbon-carbon double bonds. They are also called unsaturated hydrocarbons. The molecular formular is CnH2n. This is the same molecular formula as a cycloalkane. Structure of Alkenes 1. The two carbon ato ms of a double bond and the four atoms attached to them lie in a plane, with bond angles of approximately 120Ã ° . A double bond consists of one sigma bond formed by overlap of sp2 hybrid orbitals and one pi bond formed by overlap of parallel 2 P orbitals Here is a chart containing the systemic name for the first twenty straight chain alkenes. Name| Molecular formula| Ethene| C2H4| Propene| C3H6| Butene| C4H8| Pentene| C5H10| Hexene| C6H12| Heptene| C7H14| Octene| C8H16| Nonene| C9H18| Decene| C10H20| Undecene| C11H22| Dodecene| C12H24| Tridecene| C13H26| Tetradecene| C14H28| Pentadecene| C15H30| Hexadecene| C16H32| Heptadecene| C17H34| Octadecene| C18H36| Nonadecene| C19H38|Eicosene| C20H40| Did you notice how there is no methene? Because it is impossible for a Carbon to have a double bond with nothing. The Basic Rules: A. For straight chain alkenes, it is the same basic rules as nomenclature of alkanes except change the suffix to Ã¢â¬Å"-ene. Ã¢â¬ i. Find the Longest Carbon Ch ain that Contains the Carbon Carbon double bond. (If you have two ties for longest Carbon chain, and both chains contain a Carbon Carbon double bond, then look for most substituted chain. ) ii. Give the lowest possible number to the Carbon Carbon double bond. 1.Do not need to number cycloalkenes because it is understood that the double bond is in the one position. 2. Alkenes that have the same molecular formula but the location of the doble bonds are different means they are constitutional isomers. 3. Functional Groups with higher priority: iii. Add substituents and their position to the alkene as prefixes. Of course remember to give the lowest numbers possible. And remember to name them in alphabetical order when writting them. iv. Next is identifying stereoisomers. when there are only two non hydrogen attachments to the alkene then use cis and trans to name the molecule.In this diagram this is a cis conformation. It has both the substituents going upward. (This molecule would be c alled (cis) 5-chloro-3-heptene. ) Trans would look like this v. On the other hand if there are 3 or 4 non-hydrogen different atoms attached to the alkene then use the E, Z system. E (entgegen) means the higher priority groups are opposite one another relative to the double bond. Z (zusammen) means the higher priority groups are on the same side relative to the double bond. (You could think of Z as Zame Zide to help memorize it. ) In this example it is E-4-chloro-3-heptene.It is E because the Chlorine and the CH2CH3 are the two higher priorities and they are on opposite sides. vi. A hydroxyl group gets precedence over th double bond. Therefore alkenes containing alchol groups are called alkenols. And the prefix becomes Ã¢â¬âenol. And this means that now the alcohol gets lowest priority over the alkene. vii. Lastly remember that alkene substituents are called alkenyl. Suffix Ã¢â¬âenyl. B. For common names i. remove the -ane suffix and add -ylene. There are a couple of unique one s like ethenyl's common name is vinyl and 2-propenyl's common name is allyl.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Amending the constitution essays Many criminals set in jail for months before getting their trial heard. This is a very long process for criminal and the justice system. This costs the tax payers millions of dollars each year. This tends to be very frustrating for the criminal and other individuals taking part in the case. My proposed topic is to amend the sixth amendment and put in a stipulation. This stipulation is that the criminal at must be given a trial no more than four days from the time they had been put in jail. The sixth amendment says that In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jusry of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shal have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense (Politics in America 512). In other words this says a criminal case must be given a speedy and public trial, prohibits a long period of being in jail. This amendment needs to be amended for several reasons. One of the most important ones is to save money. Many criminals are held for several weeks without out even hearing when their trial will be. This cost the tax payers millions of dollars every single year. With this proposal in amending the sixth amendment will save millions of d ollars every year. There are many other things the cities, states, and nation could do with this saved money. Another reason this needs to be amended is because it is cruel to be put in jail and not be proven guilty yet. Everyone has their own interpretation of that tough. If this was interpreted by a justice to be cruel punishment this would violates the eighth amendment. The jails are also beginning to get over crowded. If the accused criminals could get t...
Monday, October 21, 2019
Surviving the Mountain essays Throughout my life I have spent a good amount of time in the wilderness and I've learned a lot of lessons while there. I learned the most when I was fourteen and spent five weeks at a wilderness camp in Durango, Colorado. We did everything from horseback riding to canoe trips to learning what water we should and shouldn't drink. We even had a emergency while scaling down a mountain when a fellow camper created an avalanche because he took a wrong path down the mountain. He was struck in the back by a small bolder so the other campers and I built a makeshift gurney from our backpack frames to carry him down the mountain. He was later air lifted by helicopter from the base of the mountain and fortunately he wasn't significantly injured. Never the less, my experience on that mountain taught me a lot about mental strength and staying calm while under stress. Even with the danger I encountered, I wouldn't change a thing about my time in Durango. In fact, it prepared me for what I was to f ace my senior year of high school during what was meant to be a bonding experience in the Stanislaus National Forest. Alex was in my high school class and went with us to Stanislaus National Forest. He was normally a quiet guy but was fired up during an impromptu game of pigskin. I don't even remember who threw the pass, but I can still see Alex stretched out for the ball, accidentally wedging his foot under a log that was hidden in the tall grass. The log stopped him in his path like a doorstop. Alex yelled out in pain immediately as he grabbed his ankle. I could tell this was no small sprain. It was the worst case scenario. What had once started as a bonding experience had now turned into a rescue mission. It was earlier that morning I had looked around my surroundings in a almost guilty manner knowing how lucky I was to be experiencing Mother Nature and the beautiful views. Once we had come to conclusion Alex's ankle was probably broken, ...
Sunday, October 20, 2019
Words Used to Describe Food The words below are some of the most important used to talk about how food tastes, the condition it is in, and how we cook. Practice the sentences and learn how to talk about your food.Ã Food Condition fresh - Sushi always requires fresh fish.off - Im afraid this cheese tastes off.raw - Sushi is made from raw fish as well as vegetables, seaweed, and rice.Ã ripe - Make sure the bananas are ripe so I can use them in the cake.rotten - This meat smells rotten. I think we should throw it away.tough - The steak was very tough. I could hardly chew it!tender - The lamb was so tender that it seemed to melt in my mouth.undercooked - The undercooked salmon was very poor.unripe - Many types of fruit are picked unripe and become ripe as they are shipped.overcooked - The broccoli was overcooked. It should have been crisper.Ã Food Verbs bake - Ill bake a cake for her birthday party.boil - You should boil these potatoes for forty-five minutes.cook - What would you like me to cook for dinner?fry - I usually fry some eggs and bacon on Saturday mornings.grill - During the summer I like to grill meat outside.heat - Heat up the soup and make some sandwiches.microwave - Microwave the macaroni for three minutes and eat.poach - Jennifer prefers to poach her eggs.roast - Lets put this in the oven and roast for two hours.steam - The best way to cook many vegetables is to steam them for a few minutes. Food Quantities bar - Melt one bar of butter for the sauce.liter - Ill put a liter of water on to boil for the pasta.loaf - I bought three loaves of bread at the supermarket.Ã lump - Put of a lump of butter on top of the casserole to make it tasty.piece - Would you like a piece of chicken?pint - I drank a pint of ale at the pub.portion - Have you eaten your portion of vegetables today?slice - Please put three slices of cheese on my sandwich.spoonful - Add two spoonfuls of sugar to sweeten. Food Taste bitter - The almonds were very bitter. I could hardly eat the cookies.bland - This sauce is very bland. It doesnt taste like anything.creamy - I enjoy eating creamy tomato soup on cold winter days.crisp - The apple was crisp and delicious.Ã crunchy - Granola is a very crunch type of breakfast cereal.hot - The soup is hot. Let it cool down.mild - The spices are very mild.Ã salty - The sauce was much too salty. I think you should add some water and boil it down.savory - Savory crackers with cheese make a great snack.Ã sour - Lemons are very sour!spicy - Greg enjoys eating spicy Mexican food.Ã sweet - The cherry pie wasnt too sweet. It was just right.Ã tasteless - The vegetables have been cooked for too long. Theyre tasteless. Food Types barbecue - Do you enjoy barbecue during the summer?buffet - We went to an Indian buffet and had all we could eat.four-course meal - My wife and I enjoy making four-course meals on special occasions.picnic - Lets take a picnic to the park and enjoy the good weather.snack - You should eat a snack at four, but dont eat too much.TV dinner - TV dinners are disgusting but fast. Eating and Drinking bite - Dont bite off more meat than you can comfortably chew.chew - You should chew each bite well before you swallow.swallow - If you swallow too much you might choke on your food.sip - Its best to slowly sip a cocktail rather than gulp it down.guzzle - He guzzled a glass of water after he finished the job.gulp down - He hungrily gulped down the meal as he was very hungry. Preparing Drinks add - Add two shots of whiskey and some rum.fill - Fill the glass with ice.mix - Mix in a teaspoon of sugar.pour - Pour your drink over ice cubes.Ã shake - Shake the drink well and pour into a glass.stir - Stir the ingredients well and enjoy with your favorite seafood.Ã If you know all of these words, try the advanced level food vocabulary page to really expand your vocabulary. Teachers can use this lesson about food to help students plan a meal of their own.
Saturday, October 19, 2019
Answer the question - Essay Example Such people are never alone and get easily terrified at the idea of getting acquainted with solitude for even a little while. Peer pressure to constantly remain in the world of mass media like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram etc. is so high that students are left with no choice but to become part of this popular youth culture. Otherwise, they are instantly labelled antisocial introverts. Research also claims that becoming part of the Ã¢â¬Å"inÃ¢â¬ crowd is just part of growing up in schools and colleges (p. 100). Social media in the form of a big societal force also has another shattering influence on teenagers or youth. It is no hidden reality that everyone is busy nowadays in trying to fit into an ever narrowing social ideal because that is how others want them to act. This social ideal is impressed by our social media which makes people insecure and uncomfortable with how they naturally look. Youth is most vulnerable and susceptible. This is because they very easily become a prey to the propaganda instigated by social media which is about looking thinner and more
Friday, October 18, 2019
Can Stress Cause Suicidal Symptoms - Essay Example The authenticity of this statement will be established in the proceeding arguments below. This is with the aim of drawing the attention of different psychologists to identify ways of addressing this subject with the main intention of reducing cases of suicides or suicidal thoughts. According to Carlson and Heth, stress can be defined as an unfavorable condition that can have an influence on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and physical welfare (527). Nevertheless, it has been a difficult experience to state precisely what defines stress that is, whether stress is a process, a cause or an effect that connects physical well being and mental status. Humans are complicated creatures to understand at times and therefore in terms of defining stress among humans, it might include both visible factors and invisible factors. Stress build-up has been known to give humans suicidal thoughts. This is not a new concept in the modern world, but it began a long time ago during the lifetime of Jesus for those who read the bible. When Judah, a disciple of Jesus; committed suicide after betraying his master. What drove him to develop such thoughts? In answering this question, there are various factors that can trigger someone to have suicidal thoughts at any given moment. Theories have emerged in connection with suicide thoughts and occurrences among the humans. The most striking theory is the newer theory concerning suicide by a famous American psychologist Thomas Joiner. In his theory, he has outlined three major factors that can trigger a person to resort to suicide. These include; a mindset of a person that he/she is alone in the surrounding and there is hardly anyone who has a concern or cares about them. In fact, this is normally a mistaken perception. Another factor concerns a personÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling that he/she is Ã¢â¬Ëa parasiteÃ¢â¬â¢ to other people. These types of individuals have no other thoughts, apart from suicidal thoughts.Ã
Communication and Counselling Skills - Essay Example ry vital to the society at large since they take care of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health and try their best to save patients from losing lives due to diseases, stress, accidents and injuries(Robert & James, 2005). Health and care social organisations offer a variety of services to clients and therefore should have the appropriate technology and workforce to satisfy needs of their services users exceptionally well (Peter & Rose, 2007). The workforce employed or volunteering to work in these organisations must have the necessary skills and knowledge that match the duties and responsibilities that they will be allocated. Counseling services is one the many services provided for health and social care institutions. People employed or volunteering to execute these services in these institutions must have the necessary counseling and communication skills needed for them to execute their duties and responsibilities in an exceptional manner. In this essay, a range of counseling perspectives used in c ounseling interaction, current ethical codes and boundaries related to professional practice in counseling and the significance of communication and counseling skills within health and social care will be critically analyzed and evaluated. Counseling perspectives used in counseling interactions simply mean the counseling attitudes that are applied in interactions between counselors and their clients (Stacy & Remy, 2007). The main three theories that explain these counseling perspectives are psychodynamic theory, theory of cognitive behavioral therapy and the theory of person centered therapy. In this essay only two theories will be covered and they are theory of person centered therapy and that one of cognitive behavioral therapy. Person centered therapy is also known as client centered therapy and was formulated by a humanist psychologist by the name of Carl Rogers in the year 1945 (Athman, 2006, p.15). It is a talk therapy which is non-directive in nature and among the widely used
Marketing Changes - Essay Example For launching a new Product or services we should keep concentration on following: Proctor & Gamble offers coupon in Sunday paper for promoting sales their product. These coupons are basically made for giving discount on the purchase of proctor & Gamble products. For getting discount on the purchased product of proctor & gamble, one need to show the coupon or its equivalent like key ring. After collecting some coupons from Sunday papers, you will get a Key Ring. And when you go to grocery shop for purchasing some products of proctor & gamble, you show or give your key ring and get the equivalent discount on the product. Second example of such type of marketing can be seen in marketing of the news papers. For that new paper offers one coupon in their daily edition, each coupon is given a serial number & they offer if you collect 45 coupons serially & stick them on a single form or paper and submit to new agencies, you may have chances for getting a gift may be a car, a bike, an oven etc. In this phenomenon news paper agency collects the form or paper containing 45 coupons and send it to the head office. In head office each form is given a unique number. After that head office declares date of Lucky draw. And in Lucky draw they pickup any number and then offer the gift to the customer. Marketing: In
Thursday, October 17, 2019
Explain the different conceptions of entrepreneurial strategies provided by Schumpeter (1996 and 2000) and Kirzner (1997). Use - Essay Example This appraisal is based on five different set of ideas which can be described as disequilibrating/ equilibrating, or new information or no new information, extremely innovative or not as much innovative, exceptionally conventional and originally imaginative innovation. The next step would be to assess the types of opportunities that can be commercially recognized and used beneficially (Beam, 2007) Perception The general perception is that individuals who are tough, resilient and progressive are most likely to favor Schumpeterian opportunities, and they persistently try to find inventive ways and means to expand their company. Besides their considered directions for their enterprises is to fulfill future requirements by developing practical and practical products, while individuals who concentrate on current demands have a tendency to pursue Kirznerian opportunities. This is the major inherent difference between the Schumpeterian and Kirznerian formulation of entrepreneurship; one tak es the economic systems away from stability while the other proposes a system that will ensure equilibrium. Both theories are pertinent and applicable to entrepreneurship in different ways. Some entrepreneurs establish their businesses and work towards its expansion and growth; while there are entrepreneurs who seize opportunities as and when presented and capitalize on the presented opportunities. Case Study of Ed Bazinet Schumpeter contends that the main distinctiveness of entrepreneurship is to bring together existing resources using a new and innovative approach. This is not a regular process, but it results in the acquisition of the latest knowledge and creation of new goods, which needs a new supply sources for production of these goods. This form of entrepreneurship creates a monopoly position for that organization. A case study is given of Ed Bazinet who was an extremely successful businessman. He came from a working class background, and although he was interested in busine ss he had no money to start one. He started working at a job as a purchaser to get the requisite experience, and travelled continuously to analyze markets. He began to buy up decorative pieces and found markets for the products. He called his enterprise Department 56, and its inception makes interesting reading. In 1971, Bazinet received a visit from potter who made his living by making ceramic items in his garage and selling them. The potter showed Bazinet as a ceramic Victorian house shaped like a cookie jar. Bazinet perceived a business opportunity where others had not. He asked the potter to modify the item by making a window in it, and place a light inside so that it would glow and can be used as a nightlight. The original 6 houses sold immediately, and there was an immediate demand for more. The potter did not have the resources to mass produce these miniature Victorian houses, so Bazinet had the houses made in Taiwan, and that formed his original snow village. The reason that made these villages a business success was the idea of the creation of entire snow villages with houses and components of every imaginable depiction. An outstanding feature of snow villages created by Department 56 was that they have Styrofoam and cardboard fitted sleeves which protect them from damage. The business further prospered with the